terça-feira, 4 de setembro de 2012
Deming´s 14 points - The History of Quality
William E. Deming was born in the U.S. and graduated in engineering also had master's degree in physics and mathematics and a Ph.D. in physics and mathematics, it is more a physicist who excelled in modern organizations to the example of Israel Moshe Eliyahu Goldratt made famous by launching the Book The Goal in 1984 and bring the innovative theory of constraints.
Deming worked in the reconstruction of Japan after World War II. Based on the ideas of Shewhart that the causes of variations of the cases were divided into natural causes and special causes, Deming proposed a major quality management approach based on statistical evidence focused on the continuous reduction of process variability.
The objective was to reduce the variability interval of the outputs of this process so that it becomes increasingly reliable, for example, a producer of rings that have a manufacturing process where the final result of the rings has a measuring ranges from 20 mm to 30 mm in diameter is important that the causes of this variability can be tested and this interval decreases, for example between 24 mm and 26 mm, which will generate a more accurate result, it depends of course on the specifications of customer.
This statistical approach is very important, it deserves a special topic on control charts, we will talk about it further ahead, please cover me.
See the 14 items developed by Deming
1 - Make the organization a constancy of purpose toward improvement of products and services in order to become competitive, stay in business and generate work;
2 - Adopt the new philosophy and takes the leadership of change. The competitors are doing it and consumers have growing expectations;
3 - leave the inspection as a means of achieving quality. Quality must be built by reducing variations in the process. If variations in processes are reduced, there is no need to inspect to separate defects;
4 - Stop the practice of favoring business based solely on price. Walk towards fornecedeor have a preference for each item and establish with him a long term relationship based on trust and loyalty;
5 - Improve constantly and forever every process of production and services, reducing its variations. Thus, the costs will fall steadily;
6 - enter training in the workplace. People without adequate training to produce major changes;
7 - institute leadership in place in the leadership role of supervision. The goal should be to coordinate and support;
8 - Eliminate fear. People did not perform well if they do not feel safe;
9 - elime barriers between departments, providing visibility across multiple areas. People in various activities, shall act as a team;
10 - Eliminate slogans, exhortation, they often mean nothing and create a climate of opponents;
11 - Eliminate management by objective indicators based on quantity. This point is controversial, unless it is interpreted with understanding of natural variations;
12 - remove the barriers that prevent workers in general to feel proud of their work;
13 - create a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. Although this is the 13th point, usually a starting point, and should be applied immediately after paragraph 1;
14 - characterizes the change as being the responsibility of everyone in the organization and create a structure capable of supporting all points.
You can see that the transformation towards total quality should be in every company, from human practices to the relationship with Suppliers, ie, the quality is not only in production and inspection throughout most organizational processes.